Vaccines approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA)

Name Company Type Overview Side-effects
Comirnaty BioNTech - Pfizer mRNA link link
COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna Moderna mRNA link link
COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca AstraZeneca - Oxford Viral vector link

Grouped by vaccine type

Vaccines in clinical trial phase

The vaccine testing process

PRECLINICAL TESTING: Vaccine is administered to animals to see if it produces an immune response.

PHASE I SAFETY TRIALS: Vaccine is adminstered to a small number of people to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

PHASE II EXPANDED TRIALS: Vaccine is given to hundreds of people split into groups such as children and the elderly to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.

PHASE III EFFICACY TRIALS: Vaccine is given to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus.

Vaccines in clinical trial phase

Vaccine type

Examples of licensed human vaccines using this approach

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